Trait Theory of Leadership: How the World’s Oldest Case Study Supports It

Trait Theory of Leadership: How the World's Oldest Case Study Supports It | Leadership | Emeritus

“It is an iron rule of history that what looks inevitable in hindsight was far from obvious at the time,” writes  Yuval Noah Harari in his book Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind. That gives us a fresh perspective on human history as we know it. And leadership has been such a critical part of that history. The ability to lead large groups of people is, after all, a key factor contributing to our success as a species. Have you ever wondered what makes a leader truly exceptional? We try to find answers to that question by exploring the trait theory of leadership by exploring the oldest case study that contributes to its validity — the rise of human beings to the top of the food chain. 

But first, let us understand what the trait theory states and how it is related to human evolution. 

What Does the Trait Theory of Leadership Say?

The trait theory of leadership proposes that certain traits are fundamental to effective leadership. According to this theory, these traits are often innate, resulting in consistent patterns of behavior. In essence, the trait theory suggests that successful leaders are born with specific qualities that set them apart from others. Furthermore, these innate qualities are believed to manifest themselves in consistent behaviors, allowing for the identification of potential leaders. For example, leaders might exhibit traits such as charisma, intelligence, or decisiveness, which, in turn, would influence their leadership style. Therefore, understanding these traits can be instrumental in identifying and developing future leaders.

Key Traits in the Trait Theory


According to trait theory, several key traits define effective leaders. These include:

  • Adaptability and flexibility so that leaders adapt to changing environments and think outside the box
  • Assertiveness rather than aggressiveness is key to effective leadership
  • Capacity to motivate and inspire their followers
  • Courage and resolution, especially in difficult times that allow leaders to face challenges head-on 
  • Exhibiting and fostering creativity within their teams
  • The ability to make confident decisions
  • Accepting responsibility and not passing the blame
  • Emotional stability ensures leaders control their emotions and avoid overreactions
  • The capability to make smart, action-oriented decisions
  • Goal-oriented and instilling that drive for success in their team members too 
  • Skilled at interacting and communicating well with others
  • Persevering despite obstacles
  • Self-belief and the ability to foster confidence in others as well
  • Dependable and trustworthiness are key leadership traits
  • The skill and empathy to pay attention to the needs and success of their followers

ALSO READ: How to Master Agile Leadership? Learn From Apple’s Failure and Success

The Evolution of the Trait Theory of Leadership

The trait theory aligns with the “great man” theory proposed by Thomas Carlyle, suggesting that great leaders are born, not made. However, this theory has evolved over time.

Stogdill’s Contribution

Ralph Melvin Stogdill made significant contributions to the trait theory of leadership by challenging the notion that traits alone define leadership. He argued that leadership is a dynamic interplay between personal traits and situational factors. 

Stogdill’s research demonstrated that while certain traits are essential, their effectiveness depends on the context in which a leader operates. Besides, his work led to a more nuanced understanding of leadership, emphasizing that the environment and specific circumstances play a critical role in determining the success of a leader. This perspective shifted the focus from a purely trait-based approach to a more comprehensive view of leadership dynamics.

Kouzes and Posner’s Leadership Model

James M. Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner highlighted the importance of credibility in leadership. They argued that, in addition to traditional traits, a leader’s credibility is paramount. According to their research, credibility is built through honesty, forward-looking vision, inspiration, and competence. Moreover, Kouzes and Posner emphasized that leaders must consistently demonstrate these traits to gain and maintain the trust of their followers.

Consequently, their work broadened the trait theory by incorporating the critical role of a leader’s trustworthiness and ethical behavior for effective leadership. This perspective has since become integral to modern leadership theories. This is also supported by data because only 10% of leaders are born with the traits to lead; the rest learn leadership as a skill. 

Criticism of and Support for the Trait Theory

While trait theory has faced criticism, it still has strong support. For example, critics argue that traits alone cannot predict leadership success. However, supporters believe that while traits are not the only factor, they significantly influence leadership effectiveness.

ALSO READ: Why is Empathetic Leadership Important in Today’s Workplace?

Inherent Leadership Traits vs. Acquired Leadership Traits

When examining leadership theories, the trait theory stands out for its focus on inherent qualities. However, this contrasts with behavioral theories that emphasize actions over traits. Let’s break this down further:

Inherent Qualities

  • Trait theory highlights the natural characteristics that leaders possess
  • These traits are considered innate and thus distinguish effective leaders from others
  • Examples include intelligence, self-confidence, and emotional stability

Acquired Qualities

  • Behavioral theories prioritize the actions and behaviors of leaders 
  • These theories suggest that effective leadership can be learned and developed
  • Key behaviors include how leaders motivate, communicate, and make decisions

ALSO READ: Learn the Key Traits of Strong Leaders With These 5 Leadership Books

The Oldest Case Study in the World: Survival of the Homo Sapiens

A. Homo Sapiens and Their Traits

To further explore the trait theory, let’s examine it in the context of Homo sapiens or ‘sapiens,’ as labeled by Yuval Noah Harari in his book Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind, which has quickly become a cult classic. Sapiens, which is essentially us thousands of years back, were not the only human species to roam the earth at that point in time. In fact, Harari challenges the usually linear progression of evolution that we are used to seeing represented like this:


So, among the different species of humans like Neanderthals, Homo erectus, etc., sapiens possessed specific traits that ensured their survival and dominance. Moreover, these traits align closely with the principles of the trait theory, demonstrating how inherent qualities can lead to effective leadership and success. For instance, the ability to adapt to changing environments, communicate effectively, and cooperate within groups were crucial for the survival and proliferation of Homo sapiens. Therefore, their success serves as a compelling example of how innate traits can contribute to leadership and, ultimately, the success of a species.

B. Social Cooperation

Unlike other species, Homo sapiens could cooperate with large numbers of strangers. This was not limited to immediate family or close-knit groups, as seen in species like chimpanzees or wolves. Instead, it extended to large, flexible groups, fostering innovation and problem-solving. This ability supports the trait theory by highlighting the importance of social traits in leadership.

C. Myths and Shared Beliefs

Harari emphasizes the importance of shared myths and collective fiction in Sapiens. Furthermore, this ability to create and believe in shared fictions, like religion and laws, enabled large-scale cooperation and societal development, demonstrating another aspect of the trait theory. These beliefs allowed Homo sapiens to unite and work toward common goals, a trait unique to our species. 

D. Comparison With Other Species

When we compare Homo sapiens to other species, such as Neanderthals, we see significant differences. 

For instance, Neanderthals also had social structures and communication abilities. However, one of the traits of the Neanderthals showcased in a Netflix documentary, The Secrets of the Neanderthals—and how they differed from Homo sapiens—is that they had smaller social networks. This was probably the reason for their less complex communication abilities, which ultimately limited their ability to adapt and innovate. It perhaps also explains why their cooperation was limited and inflexible compared to Homo sapiens. This flexibility and the ability to adapt and innovate gave the latter group a significant advantage. Hence, the trait theory is further supported by these differences, showing how certain traits can lead to dominance and success.

ALSO READ: Learn the Top Leadership Theories to Become a Successful Leader

Relevance of Trait Theory in Modern Leadership Roles

Trait theory, with its focus on identifying specific qualities that make for effective leaders, remains highly relevant in today’s complex business environments. Here’s why understanding and applying trait theory can be incredibly beneficial for professionals aiming for leadership roles:

1. Predictive Power in Recruitment and Development

Trait theory helps identify leadership potential early on. By recognizing traits such as decisiveness, integrity, and empathy during the recruitment process, organizations can effectively predict future leadership success. Additionally, this insight is vital for designing targeted development programs that nurture promising leaders.

2. Enhanced Personal Growth

For individuals, a deep dive into trait theory encourages self-awareness and personal development. Moreover, understanding the traits that contribute to successful leadership can inspire aspiring leaders to cultivate these qualities within themselves, fostering both personal and professional growth.

3. Improved Team Dynamics

Leaders who understand trait theory can better appreciate the diverse traits within their teams. As a result, they are able to assign tasks based on individual strengths, promote a more collaborative atmosphere, and manage conflicts more effectively, leading to enhanced team performance.

4. Strategic Decision-Making

Certain leadership traits, such as analytical thinking and resilience, are crucial for strategic decision-making. Therefore, leaders who develop these traits can navigate complex business landscapes more effectively, making decisions that align with long-term organizational goals.

5. Crisis Management

In times of crisis, traits such as calmness, confidence, and the ability to communicate clearly are invaluable. Furthermore, leaders who exhibit these traits can maintain team morale and guide their organizations through challenging periods with confidence.

6. Cultural Fit and Adaptability

Modern organizations often emphasize cultural fit as much as skills and experience. Thus, trait theory can help aspiring leaders understand the traits that align with their organization’s values and culture, facilitating better integration and adaptability in various corporate climates.

ALSO READ: What is Situational Leadership? How Does it Help Achieve Goals?

The principles derived from our ancestors continue to shape modern leadership, emphasizing the timeless relevance of adaptability, communication, creativity, and social cooperation. However, in today’s complex world, leaders must not only possess these inherent qualities but also continuously develop their skills to navigate new challenges. Therefore, to enhance your leadership abilities and stay ahead in your career, consider enrolling in Emeritus’ leadership courses. These courses are designed to equip you with the knowledge and skills necessary to excel in modern leadership roles, thus bridging the gap between innate qualities and the demands of the modern workplace.

Write to us at

About the Author

Content Writer, Emeritus Blog
Niladri Pal, a seasoned content contributor to the Emeritus Blog, brings over four years of experience in writing and editing. His background in literature equips him with a profound understanding of narrative and critical analysis, enhancing his ability to craft compelling SEO and marketing content. Specializing in the stock market and blockchain, Niladri navigates complex topics with clarity and insight. His passion for photography and gaming adds a unique, creative touch to his work, blending technical expertise with artistic flair.
Read More About the Author

Learn more about building skills for the future. Sign up for our latest newsletter

Get insights from expert blogs, bite-sized videos, course updates & more with the Emeritus Newsletter.

Courses on Leadership Category

IND +918277998590
IND +918277998590